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Nov 17th

Page history last edited by Jared 12 years, 8 months ago

     Constructing Texts                                                         Making meaning



Foundation Work The (lack of) mystery in the component parts of Project 4:



     You do, of course, have the RIGHT to your"opinion"... something everyone is entitled to ... just as others are entitled to prove to you that your opinion is defensive, reactionary, and "false" -- Crimes Against Logic, Jamie Whyte


Foundation Components of P4:

1) A paragraph that houses your thesis 

  • this does not need to be your first paragraph (this time), but may still be effective there...
  • your thesis needs to establish what you're evaluating and your (arguable) criteria for your evaluation 
  • your thesis should be targeted at your chosen audience 


2) Paragraph(s) that establish exigence

  • "Exigence has to do with what prompts the author to write in the first place, a sense of urgency, a problem that requires attention right now, a need that must be met, a concept that must be understood before the audience can move to a next step." (M. Jimmie Killingsworth, Appeals in Modern Rhetoric. SIU, 2005)
  • The exigence is both your MOTIVATION, and a persuasive presentation of the problem or issue to your audience so that it matters to them 


3) Background paragraph(s) that prove you have gathered enough knowledge to begin to evaluate your topic

  • these must build your ethos by showing you've done enough research
  • these must describe the necessary context for your evaluation
  • these must state several important perspectives on the topic/issue by real people (also part of your research) 
  • may establish the scope of your 'problem'/solution (national, international, regional, local) and your specific focus (You might here be able to argue that 'the small part' you're evaluating is emblematic of a larger problem, usingSynecdoche)
  • may help you find a more specific topic
  • may establish important historical comparisons or contrasts 
  • may draw on personal experience with the topic  
  • may take time to directly address your chosen audience (after a solid audience analysis)
  • may take time to establish common ground


4) Paragraphs that are focused on supporting/defending your choice of criteria (and use the following rhetorical tools)

  • these will draw on research in support (continue to build your ethos)
  • you may need to consider wheter a particular criteria (part of the problem/solution) needs to be FURTHER divided into parts (Eutripismus). 

  • might need to work through rhetorical definitions (and their criteria) (project 3 style)

  • One or two might need to offer a key resemblance
  • One or two will need to inquire into Cause/Consequence (though this may be in your background or exigence pars)
  • Several paragraphs might directly raise and analyze counter-arguments (project 2 style), also known as Dissoi Logoi, the art of raising counter arguments


NOTE: If you've included paragraphs working on 1 through 4 effectively, taken suitable time to edit sentences and format your work, you will have a passable project 4 (at least...)


Completing work for all 4 goals should be your included in a 4 page rough draft due Tuesday: Response 12



...3 critical steps to making meaningful and persuasive arguments:


Excellent Evaluations will effectively:


1) Interpret the readings/research,

2) Respond to the texts/research, 

3) Thoughtfully reflect on Pathos 


 Advancing your Research:


(1) reading as interpretation...What is interpretation?

... reading


(2) responding to texts, and How to Respond? (a.k.a. how to enhance your response-ability this semester)

...reading ... the ultimate tool: They Say/I Say


(3) inviting affective influences into the writing process. Why Pathos really matters...


For the remainder of the class period, you should establish a goal of drafting 2 to 3 paragraphs.


     We will treat this (somewhat) as an essay exam, with similar rules (quiet writing, time constraints) to help us

focus on writing.  


Two guidelines:

1) use your research questions to start drafting a 'response' (consider using They/Say I/Say)


2) make sure you work towards any of the goals from the 4 Foundation Components above



Zen Bonus tip:


The most common essay exam questions typically contain key rhetorical terms on topics from a course, which reflect rhetorical modes such as: "analyze," "argue," “compare,” “describe,” “define,” “explain a process,” “classify,” “evaluate”

or "propose a course of action"


These key terms should be taken as organizing principles for thesis support.  The Owl Purdue website has a good breakdown of such common questions:http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/gl_essay.html





1) Identify one of the rhetorical key terms

2) Plan an answer around this key term (like your response 10 and 11)

3) Draft an answer (see tips on how to draft an answer)



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