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Electronic Dance Music: A Climb to the Top


     Picture for me if you could, the ultimate euphoric experience… One might describe this as a constant flow of collective sounds and rhythms working with brilliant lights and visuals to overwhelm you and the surrounding sea of people. Stacks of speakers with enough kick to make you feel as if you have no choice but to move your feet. Suddenly the pulse of the kick drum cuts out, and the room is over taken with big synths, beautiful chords, and melodic progressions. It appears as if the crowd is at one with the sound, and as the separate tracks collectively build, a sea of hands arise… higher… higher… Until you couldn’t possibly reach any further upwards, and that anticipated moment perfectly timed for the kick drum to blast through the speakers arrives, as the “drop” rocks the dance floor. The crowd is forced to erupt in movement, dancing to the groove almost as if everyone’s energies are connected for this brief moment, moving as one to the unchanging pulse. In this moment it is not just hearing the music, but feeling the music, and freely interpreting it through movements of the body. The DJ towers above front and center, looking out to a sea of people rocking back and forth, awaiting his command.


      I’m sure many of you know by now that the scene that I have just described is commonly known as a rave, which is a spectacular party fueled by Electronic Dance Music (EDM). This is a difficult experience to fully understand without being there firsthand because as I mentioned before “it is not just about hearing the music.” The performance consists of more than just a soundtrack, but a brilliant display of color, light, sound, and a refreshing blast of mist flooding through the audience; it’s like the ultimate thrill for your senses. I have seen some serious production value go into these shows, but truthfully a good show really relies on the talent of the DJ because an experienced DJ will have much more control over the crowd and will really know how to get the party going. Regardless of who is preforming, EDM provides an experience for our generation that is just beginning to unfold.  The growing culture associated with EDM can be viewed in many different ways, such as “the rave scene, rave culture, and club life”… But any way you look at it, these terms are nothing without the driving force of Electronic Dance Music pumping through the speaker stacks, just loud enough for electronica to escape the underground and slowly creep into the mainstream, preparing for its takeover. What used to be a such an unknown style of music is beginning see a rapid increase in popularity worldwide due to the recent increase in media publicity as well as the spread of a unique cultural and social experience for our generation. I will be evaluating EDM deeply as a style of music that has progressed greatly through the years, as well as the cultural experience that comes along with this style of music, showing that they are both expanding and becoming more widely recognized quickly. The underground sensation many know as the club scene is transforming into a more culture oriented practice that can provide a unique set of economic and social benefits with potential to do great things for our country.


     To provide more of an understanding of electronic dance music, I will briefly discuss how it is created and produced. This is a totally computerized art form, but that does not mean that it lacks creativity and musicality. Rather than focusing on technicality, this type of music is heavily focused on collaborative rhythms, and sound design. Electronic music is created through the use of Audio Production Software also known as DAW platforms. DAW platforms allow you to create as many tracks needed to create a piece of music (a track is a loop of one sound, such as a kick drum) and arrange them in time. One may use preset sounds provided in their DAW platform, or you can design your own sounds through the use of synthesizers as well as other plug ins, which will be discussed more in depth further into this evaluation. I have personally seen many individuals, myself included, experimenting with the production electronic music. This skill not only gives people a better understanding of music and technology, but also promotes creative expression, which is a great tool usable in all types of learning. After all, our generation is one of proficient technological skills compared to those of the past, and in this fast paced rave and remix culture the ability to implement creativity into music is what separates few from the rest.


     Adopting the idea of electronic dance music bringing rise to a more culture oriented future may be tough to some, but it comes easier to those who really have a feel for what electronic dance music is all about. It is my goal that my text helps solidify your understanding of electronic dance music as a part of a widely growing culture. To do this I will explore the history and uprising of EDM as well as further explain the style or feel of the music. But what better place to start then the very roots of electronica itself? Well, determining it’s true origin proves to be difficult due to the collaborative effort of people discovering technological advancements in music from all over the world. Truthfully the history of electronic dance music can hardly be called history at all, seeing as how it has only been around for about half a century. Although in the year 1928, the very first demonstration of electronic music occurred with the invention of the Theremin, establishing the forefront for technological exploration in music. The Theremin is a monophonic (only one pitch can be played at a time) musical device invented by Russian inventor Leon Theremin. Operating this strange instrument requires the use of both hands, one to control the oscillation knob (Used to change frequency of sound waves in turn changing the pitch) and the other to control the amplitude or volume knob. The electrical signals are sent to a loudspeaker producing a very eerie sound often sought ought for movie soundtracks (Wikipedia.com). This strange yet revolutionary invention intrigued many within the music community, even causing other musicians such as Cowell and Varese to discuss their own ideas of electronic musical instruments with Theremin (Holmes). This was the start of an ongoing journey to discover the potential of the electronic element in music. Needless to say, the invention of the Theremin overstepped traditional musical boundaries and opened up a world of opportunity.


     With this new approach towards music, many innovators spent countless hours working towards the development of electronic instruments, eventually leading to the innovation of electronic music as an art form with great potential. For instance, author Thomas Holmes claims “The most successful off-spring of the Theremin was the French-made Ondes Martenot originally called the Ondes Musicales meaning (‘musical waves’). The device designed by French musician Maurice Martenot (1898-1980) was not much more than a new and improved Theremin. He wanted to invent an electronic musical instrument that could join the ranks of traditional symphonic instruments and be the focus of works written by the leading composers (Holmes). Martenot wanted to create an instrument that appeared more as a traditional instrument people would use, unlike the Theremin. The Ondes Martenot bared a striking resemblance to a keyboard, and had a few more advanced features than the Theremin, bringing us one step closer today’s electronic musical instruments.


     During this time period (around the 1930s) electronic instruments were being created more for collaboration with traditional instruments, but as time progressed (about 5 decades…) and interest grew electronic music began to blossom into a style unique and its own. More and more innovators and musicians were getting involved, and this led to the creation of instruments and devices that would forever change electronic music, such as the synthesizer. A synthesizer (often abbreviated as "synth") is an electronic instrument capable of producing a wide range of sounds, which may either imitate other instruments ("imitative synthesis") or generate new timbres (Wikipedia). I strongly believe that the collaborative inventing and reinventing of the synthesizer is the most important and influential thing to ever happen to electronic music. Synthesizers are capable of creating sounds used in any type of contemporary music, but in electronic dance music artists generally engineer their own sounds rather than imitating others. This is done through tweaking separate components of the synth to achieve the desired sound.


     Typically, a synthesizer consists of four different components, such as electronic oscillators, some sort of filter, an LFO (low frequency oscillator), and a sound/effects bank. The electronic oscillators are the main component of the sound. It creates an actual pitch dependent on the shape of the sound wave assigned to the oscillator, as well as other factors like detune, pan, number of voices, etc. These electronic oscillators alone are capable of transforming one note into harmony (that is if the synth is polyphonic). When the sounds created by these oscillators are further tweaked by other components of the synthesizer, a wide range of sounds can be discovered and shaped into exactly what your ears are looking for. As a regular listener of electronic dance music with some background knowledge on synthesizers I understand their importance to the style of music. I felt it appropriate to inform my readers how such an instrument functions only because sound design is such a huge aspect of EDM, and the very essence of technology in music.


     The advancement of computerized music called for some sort of a common language between computers and instruments.  This is exactly what Gordon Hall defined in 1982, when MIDI (Musical Instruments Digital Interface) was created. MIDI is sort of like the language of digital instrumentation structured through binary sequencing. Electronic instruments, computers, and other electronic equipment (such as mixers, controllers, etc.) were now able to communicate and synchronize with each other using MIDI compatible software (Wikipedia). This is somewhat of a standard for the music industry today, and all equipment compatible with MIDI must operate under the same specific set of rules. To be compatible with MIDI, an instrument must produce digital sound, which is a huge advantage of digital synths over analog synths. In today’s society, the combination of synthesizers, drum machines, and MIDI technology make up for a great deal of produced music throughout the world. Even popular Hip-Hop, and R&B songs are produced using totally synthesized sounds, using MIDI production software to arrange tracks and create beats to be recorded over. Music technology studies and innovations have come so far over the past century, but the style of EDM has only really been recognized as its own genre of music for about 30 years.


     Experimentation with ideas of EDM go back to date to the1960’s, when early Jamaican DJ’s overlaid multiple instrumental tracks using real-to-real tape players (focusmusic.co.uk). By taking popular pre-recorded reggae songs, and overlaying them together removing appropriate aspects of each song to successfully blend them together they had created a style of music called “Dub.” Eventually this style was applied to other types of music, including electronica decades later. Drum and bass sounds are emphasized in Dub to get the crowd moving.


     This approach to music continued in the years following, and early developments of House music began in the late 70’s, which was the next big step towards the development of EDM. A man from Chicago named Frankie Knuckles was the first DJ to preform what is now known as house music. Knuckles started his preforming career in Chicago playing soul, disco, and R&B at the club “Better Day’s” (Wikipedia). His career really took off when a club called the Warehouse opened in Chicago, and he was invited to play there at a regular basis. Here he mastered his art of using mixing tables to play multiple records at the same time adjusting their EQ and tempos to match up perfectly. He then layered percussive beats over the top of this giving birth to mainstream house music (www.focusmusic.co.uk). Although at this time, Frankie’s music was not considered electronica, he did play a big role in the spread of house music to the public, and its eventual merging into the category of EDM.


     At the same time as Knuckles was mixing in Chicago, Detroit DJ Derrick May was taking fundamental ideas of house music and putting a more futuristic and electronic twist on it. With May’s lead, Detroit became the birthplace of the popular EDM subgenre named “techno,” which is credited for pushing electronic dance music to the next level through its experimental trademarks. After the development of techno, EDM as a whole has been very influenced by more electronic and synthesized sound. May began Detroit’s movement into the world of EDM, with the help of artists such as Carl Craig, Kevin Saunderson, and Carol Marvin. Craig and May came up with the idea to put on an event to celebrate the techno music of Detroit. In 1994, an event known as the “World Party” was held at the Joe Louis Arena where multiple DJs preformed EDM sets (Wikipedia). Unfortunately, this event was unsuccessful from an economic standpoint. However, it did expose Detroit as a city that has had great impact on electronic dance music, and introduce the idea of celebrating this achievement. After six years of planning, the kickoff of DEMF (Detroit Electronic Music Festival) 2000 was a success. Since then it has been an annual celebration that provides a great cultural and musical experience in which locals can take pride in their city. During the years 2003 and 2004, May was in charge of the festival, giving it the new name of “Movement.” I believe this symbolizes Detroit’s impact on the development of electronic dance music, and the movement we are a part of because of this. Today, the event is known as Movement’s: Detroit Electronic Music Festival, and is run by an electronic music production/booking company named Paxahau from Ferndale, Michigan. (Wikipedia). As a citizen of Detroit, I take pride in the fact that my city was one of the first to show appreciation for EDM through annual celebration. 


     Electronic dance festivals and celebrations provide listeners with a wide variety of sounds and styles each unique in their own way. Today electronic dance music has a multitude of styles and music types, creating an extensive list of genres and subgenres that will only continue to grow. As the genres I have mentioned before (House, Dub, Techno) continued to develop on their own, many artists borrowed ideas from each genre in collaboration with one another. The merging of these styles took place between the 1980’s and 90’s, leading to the creation of many subgenres branching off of these original three. As this hybrid style of music began to grow, it was decided for all of these similarly related genres and subgenres to be labeled as electronic dance music. The list of genres is very extensive, so rather than trying to explain, I have posted a link to this list below.




            Looking over this list, it is easy to tell that electronic dance music has evolved so much since the years of the recent past. This list would only be a mere fraction of what it is now if our society was not showing a growing interest in EDM. Genres and sub genres can only be viewed as accepted if they have fans, and those who follow similar footsteps to produce music of the same type. One of the main reasons for this growing interest is the transformation of the culture and fan base of electronic music from underground in the clubs, to festivals in the parks and plazas. Not to say electronic dance music has left the underground, it remains there indefinitely, fueling multiple late night parties in clubs and venues throughout major cities. Philadelphia Weekly writer Elliot Sharp claims “While EDM artists in the past were banished to small clubs, now they’re selling out venues historically reserved for radio-friendly mainstream acts like the Foo Fighters, Britney Spears or Kanye West. The demand’s increased radically, especially among college audiences.” Our generation especially is showing a newfound interest in electronic dance music, and in turn economic and social benefits have presented themselves.


     In the last decade electronic dance music has exploded worldwide, and is exponentially increasing in popularity by the day, providing worldwide economy with a much-needed boost. Feature Writer Victoria Aitken states that “According to IMS Business report 2011, in the UK, EDM single sales have grown by over 50% since 2007” (globalcomment.com).  This means that in just four years, London’s interest in electronic music has increased spectacularly, and similar patterns are being seen all over the world. Dance music festivals are shooting up everywhere, including these three recent additions in America: The Electric Zoo (New York City), Electric Daisy Carnival (Las Vegas), and Ultra (Miami). The Electronic Dance Music Industry alone brings in an average of 4 billion dollars a year to the United States since it’s recent popularity. DEMF alone pumped 90 million dollars into Detroit’s economy within its first two years of operation (Wikipedia). Clearly Electronic Dance Music has proved itself as a contributing factor to our economy, and at the rate it is growing these economic benefits can only improve.


     Metro areas are especially affected because of the high concentration of venues, such as clubs, parks, theaters, plazas, etc. On top of this, metro areas are much more capable of funding events like these than surrounding suburbs.International DJ superstar Pete Tong says, “Dance music has finally arrived in the USA, and that electronic music has taken over Vegas” (globalcomment.com). He goes on to say that Vegas is a huge tourist attraction with plenty of clubs, venues, and hotels that need to be filled. The city is booking widely known DJs as attractions to tourists, and in turn helping to fill hotels and casinos. Vegas is now recognized as having one of the best EDM scenes in all of America, drawing in a multitude of superstar DJs, as well as impressive crowds. Several other cities across America such as Miami, New York City, Chicago, Las Angeles and of course, Detroit are reaping the benefits of EDM. The potential of what electronic dance music can do for America is just beginning to present itself, and I believe that this shift in the music industry deserves an explanation.


     Sadly, even with this EDM’s impressive growth, it is easy to tell that hip-hop, rap, and R&B (which I will group together as hip-hop for sake of space) are the primary types of music that our growing generation associates themselves with. As of now, these genres would be considered “mainstream” which is easy to tell for anyone who listens to the radio. Personally I have experienced a change in this way of thinking in many people who are choosing to join the growing community of EDM fans. Dance music is sweeping the nation, and if this pattern continues, I believe hip-hop will be challenged for this position of mainstream music. Other places like the UK, and Australia, have already seen EDM take over as mainstream music, causing a huge increase in performances by “superstar” DJs. Festivals and shows are rising in number each year, attracting huge crowds and often selling out. America is not far behind in this movement, and many famous DJs are using hip-hop’s popularity to their advantage.


     DJs are becoming more widely recognized by providing the “beat” or composing all of the background music going into the song for famous hip-hop and R&B artists. Electronic dance music DJs are seen as experts in this field is because EDM is heavily focused on beat making and sound production. This makes them primary targets for hip-hop artists in the means of collaboration to make a successful song, and in turn DJs get to have their beats heard on a larger scale than normal. Victoria Aitken of the global comment reinforces this statement by saying “Thanks to David Guetta, and Swedish House Mafia who have helped bring dance music to the masses by working with hip-hop stars (David Guetta with the Black eyed peas) (Swedish House mafia with Tiny Tempah), Dance music has become global.”I am sure many have you have heard this more “techno pop” sound on mainstream radio stations. This is beginning to happen more and more as EDM grows in popularity, and I have even heard EDM songs played on mainstream stations without the collaboration of a hip hop artist. Aitken of the Global Comment goes on to say “Additionally, with or without hip-hop stars, DJ’s are now stars in their own right such as Deadmau5, a marketing genius who currently has millions of fans on twitter, with numbers increasing every day.” This proves that EDM DJs are now beginning to make it big on their own in this day and age, and I feel that there is no better example of a success story in the world of EDM than that of America’s number one DJ himself.


     Ryan Raddon is a 40-year-old man who now makes an average of $200,000 a night thanks to a long history of DJing and producing. Raddon, who has been mixing since he was 18 has finally hit the stage with the name of “Kaskade,” and is sweeping the nation with a packed schedule of tours and shows. Raddon’s career started to take off upon his arrival to San Francisco, where he received the position of A&R director at a popular house and electronic music label called OM records. With this position, he was able to help the careers of other EDM DJs, as well as drop his first ever album titled “Its You, Its Me” in 2003 (theblaze.com). From here on out, the name Kaskade was born, and this year marks the arrival of his seventh album “Fire and Ice.” This album features Kaskade’s huge hit single “Eyes (Feat. Mindy Gledhill)” and surprised many as it reached number 4 on ITunes’s overall album chart. On top of this, Raddon helped organize, and headlined a 19-day traveling EDM festival called Identity Festival (which I attended when ID came to DTE). This was the first traveling EDM festival to hit America, and successfully brought in packed crowds all over the country. Raddon’s passion for EDM is apparent in his songs, and this is the driving force behind his success in the industry.


     Today Kaskade is viewed as one of the best DJs of our time, and was recently awarded with the title of America’s Best DJ of 2011 by D.J. Times and Pioneer DJ. In my opinion, Raddon deserves this award entirely for his true musical talent and ability to draw on his listener’s emotions through his songs. Rolling Stone Magazine writer Steve Baltin got a chance to speak with Kaskade about his new album. Raddon states, “I don’t want to make a record that can only be listened to at two a.m. I wanted it to say more, to be musical, to stand up on its own so somebody who might not know about dance music or might not listen to it all the time would still be able to put it on and be like, ‘Man, this whole thing is interesting.’” Raddon refers to “Fire and Ice” as the culmination of his ten year career, providing a unique range of sounds and styles that stem from the evolvement of his career. Kaskade is pushing EDM to the next level, by creating music that can be enjoyed by more than just the common “raver.” Music that he describes as, “Melodic, euphoric, big room house” to Radio One’s Pete Tong. I look up to Kaskade as my number one influence in my journey into the world of electronic dance music, not only as a produce and DJ, but also as a noble and inspirational person.


      Raddon is hugely involved with the growing EDM scene and club life, which is why it surprises many that he stays true to his faith and values. In fact, superstar “Kaskade” is a deeply religious and devoted Mormon, who fathers three children and does not drink (theblaze.com). Many argue that drinking and drug abuse are problems that are very prominent at EDM events, but how can this be blamed on the music or those making it rather than our country’s current hardships and a twisted society. Raddon says, “I’m not promoting drugs or anything. Club culture is about leaving your cares behind, and I am trying to create that environment. I honestly don’t think you need to be high to enjoy that.” (theblaze.com) Although drug use is prominent at many raves, the artists have no control over it, and deserve none of the blame. Raddon goes on to say, “Are people taking drugs? Yes. I’m not naïve,” he claims. “I know that there are people out there who are high. Yeah, I wish they wouldn’t do that. You can still enjoy this performance and have a great experience sober.” Musicians and artists should be credited for creating an emotional escape with their fans rather than being looked at as “bad guys” for something that they have no control over. After all, everybody is entitled to their own decision and must be ready to take responsibility for these decisions, including what they put into their body.


     Looking back at America’s history, drug use was at an all time high during hard times for our country. During the late 60’s and 70’s they were facing an economic recession as we are now, fighting the Vietnam War, and dealing with numerous political and social issues. This time period closely relates to what we are seeing now, and in both cases an increase of drug users is correlated with these struggles.  The cultures of the younger generations (our age group) show similarities in both time periods as well. During the 70’s much of the youth took place in what could be called “hippy culture.” Classic Rock and other forms of Rock n Roll were very popular during this time period, and there were many festivals and shows to celebrate music and culture. One of these festivals known as “Woodstock” was one of the greatest musical events ever in America, and it’s memory lives on in the minds and hearts of a previous generation.


      I do not see this as some terribly drug influenced time period, but rather a time where people came together during hardships to have their voices heard across a generation. Today we are seeing an immense amount of social issues, rooting from the terrible economic recession the USA is currently facing. Things like Occupy Wall street, the War on Terrorism, and of course the corrupt nature of the government and media are taking a toll on society’s well being. Fortunately, thanks to electronic dance music the number of festivals and performances are on the rise once again providing our generation with an opportunity to come together and escape the troubles of the real world by participating in rich cultural celebrations.


     America as a nation has lost touch with it’s culture, we are too used to our daily routines and “working for the man” to celebrate our coming together as a nation. After all, we are a country that is envied by many others, yet we don’t even take the time to stop and appreciate the rich culture between our boarders. The USA is one of the most diverse nations in the entire world, and what better way to celebrate than with a diverse group of people? However, this can be changed through new music. I am proposing EDM as a style of music with unlimited potential, including the potential to re introduce culture to America, creating a more unified generation (our generation) by giving people with different backgrounds a shared interest.  After all if you can’t celebrate the culture of the past, why not celebrate the culture of the future?


     A feel for EDM culture is a hard thing to be transmitted through text or words, but I can attempt to provide a further understanding through my own personal experience.  I have attended a lot of EDM shows, but only few festivals. In my opinion, festivals are a much more enjoyable experience giving attendees a much greater feel for this new culture in development. Each year in our city we are given the opportunity to support Detroit’s rising industry for EDM by attending DEMF. It is the perfect opportunity jump into this growing culture, as well as hear sounds related to Detroit’s influence on EDM. Hart Plaza packs in crowds from all over the country and even the world each year. I feel that this is a perfect place for such an event mainly because of the layout and stage set up, providing 5 different stages each unique in their own way. Each stage gives off a different vibe, with different scenery, and different influences in musical style. It is here you will find a high concentration of people, most dancing to the vibes of the DJ, and enjoying their time spent with fellow ravers. People that are able to put there differences aside for the sake of the music, and having a good time. Looking around Hart Plaza, you will find all kinds of different people form different backgrounds wearing absurd and hilarious outfits. Whether they are socializing, dancing, or just taking it all in, all are a part of something that is about more than just the music. It is about celebrating something eternal and beautiful, to celebrate the coming together of people, and establishing a stronger connection between EDM and the community. Music’s ability to bring people together is incredible, and if a little dance music is what it takes for people to get together and celebrate once and a while then so be it. By creating an escape from reality, and drawing on listener’s emotions, music has the ability to move people, to move groups of people, and even unify these people. Reminding them that we are all brothers and sisters on this Earth.


     The future is bright for EDM, more and more fans are checking in every day and in turn a culture is growing from it all. To many fans, EDM is a way of life, more than just music. EDMs rise in combination with a strong and loyal fan base allows for the music to expand into something more meaningful. People being brought together in celebration of this music created a culture that is so new and exciting that it really has become a way of life (to the fans).


     In the past year I have met so many people of my generation through EDM who all share common interests with me, and that I could call my “friend” by first impression alone. Honestly, almost all of the people I have encountered at electronic shows were very friendly people, even though they were complete strangers to me. Electronic dance music not only helped me see the good in people, it changed my life entirely. I now wish to be a more involved part of this growing community, and contribute my own sound for others to hear and enjoy. Recently I have started working on the production of music and design of sound so that I may one day apply these skills and leave my own footprint on the EDM movement. I wish to pursue a career in this field, but first I must bring ideas to the public.


     I believe that creation of electronic dance music has endless potential. We live in a society so heavily influenced by technology, and this is very apparent with all of the technological advancements seen in music. Many people fear that this will lead to instrumental music becoming a dying art form, as well as a loss of appreciation for music’s roots and history. I believe that this can be prevented through the use of electronic dance music. With music being greatly influenced by remixes and building of existing material, the solution seems simple. One could simply incorporate fundamental ideas of other music types like Jazz or Classical, such as accenting different beats, or the structure of their progression. Any sound can be mimicked as well to provide instrumentation for all types of music. Tools also exist to take audio samples from existing pieces and manipulate them to create endless possibilities. In fact, a DJ can easily mix songs from any music type into a live set, putting a new twist on old music.


     Electronic dance music can be broken down, reworked, and reproduced an endless number of times. I believe it has the potential of a music style with endless possibilities. EDMs history and technological advancement have helped it become what it is today, and although it is still growing rapidly it has already done numerous things for our economy and society. We are only beginning to scratch the surface of musical experimentation. After all, who says that there can’t be a guitar solo in the middle of an EDM song? Or a rap verse over the drop? Dance music will continue to be taken to the next level as long as there are artists who strive for creativity, and I for one, am going to sit back, and enjoy the ride.





Works Cited


Aitken, Victoria. "The Ibiza Music Summit and the Future of Electronic Dance Music." GlobalComment | Where the World Thinks out Loud. 15 June 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://globalcomment.com/2011/from-ibiza-to-vegas-the-ibiza-music-summit-and-the-future-of-electronic-dance-music/>.


Baltin, Steve. "Kaskade Aiming to Expand the World of Dance Music | Music News | Rolling Stone." Rolling Stone | Music News, Politics, Reviews, Photos, Videos, Interviews and More. 02 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/kaskade-aiming-to-expand-the-world-of-dance-music-20111102>.


Hallowell, Billy. "Ryan Raddon, a Mormon & a Famous Club D.J. Named ‘Kaskade,’ Makes $200,000 Per Night | Video | TheBlaze.com." Breaking News and Opinion on The Blaze. 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.theblaze.com/stories/meet-kaskade-a-devout-mormon-who-makes-200000-per-night-as-a-night-club-d-j/>


Holmes, Thom. Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture. Google Books. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en>.


"Multiple Articles...(Synthesizer,DEMF,Derrick May, Frankie Knuckles,MIDI)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/>.


Sharp, Elliott. "Dubstep Poised to Take Philly's Music Throne | Cover Story | News and Opinion | Philadelphia Weekly." Philadelphia Weekly | Local News, Reviews, Multimedia, Music, Real Estate and More. 16 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.philadelphiaweekly.com/news-and-opinion/cover-story/133909523.html?page=2>.





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